Douglas Groothuis

Defending Christian Faith, October 5, 2004




part 2



The heavens declare the glory of God;

the skies proclaim the work of his hands

(Psalm 19:1)



III.       Types of Design to Which to Appeal (continued)


G.        Design as information:  DNA as language best explained by an author


H.        Cosmic constants:  the anthrophic principle (fine-tuning argument). For an updated version of the design argument (based on cosmological factors), see also Hugh Ross, “The Big Bang Model Refined by Fire” in William Dembski, ed., Mere Creation (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998), 363 – 384 (especially 371 – 384 where he gives 45 cosmic constants!)


I.          Proper use of the data (Moreland, 54 – 55)


1.         Not, “It is amazing that elements that p – x (human knowers) came together here, and we know it. This requires a designer.” We couldn’t know it unless it came together here.


2.         Or; “It is amazing that elements p – x came about and not some other series.” For x to occur, p – x must occur, not another series.


3.         Not “Isn’t it amazing that x obtains when the necessary and sufficient conditions for x obtain?” No. That is a tautology, not an argument.


4.         Rather: “It is amazing that p - x came about at all, given the vast odds against it occurring by merely natural means.” See Richard Swinburne, Is There a God? (Oxford, 1996), 66 – 67.



IV.       Forms of Design Argument


A.        Synthetic a priori (strongest view rationally)


B.         Argument from analogy (only form Nash mentions)


1.         Possibility view


2.         Frequency view


3.         Evidential view